- Chinoy NJ, Narayana MV, In Vitro Toxicity In Human Spermatozoa, Fluoride, 1994, 27:4
- Chinoy NJ, Sukla S, Walimbe AS, Bhattacharya S, Fluoride Toxicity on Rat Testis and Cauda Epididymal Tissue Components and its Reversal, Fluoride, 1997, 30:1
- Chinoy NJ, Narayana MV, Dalal V, et al, Amelioration of Fluoride Toxicity in Some Accessory Reproductive Glands, and Spermatozoa of Rat, Fluoride, 1995, 28:2
- Chinoy NJ, Reddy VVPC, Michael M, Beneficial Effects of Ascorbic Acid and Calcium on Reproductive Functions of Sodium Fluoride-Treated Prebubertal Male Rats, Fluoride, 1994, 27:2
- Chinoy NJ, Sequeira E, Narayana MV, Effects of Vitamin C and Calcium on the Reversibility of Fluoride-Induced Alterations in Spermatozoa of Rabbits, Fluoride, 1991, 24:1
- Chinoy NJ, Sequeira E, Reversible Fluoride Induced Fertility Impairment In Male Mice, Fluoride, 1992, 25:2, 71-76
- Chinoy NJ, Manisha S, Mathews M, Beneficial Effects of Ascorbic Acid and Calcium on Reversal of Fluoride Toxicity in Male Rats, Fluoride, 1993, 26:1
- Eckerlin RH, et al., Ameliorative effects of reduced food-borne fluoride on reproduction in silver foxes. Cornell Vet 1988 Oct;78(4):385-91
- Freni SC, Exposure To High Fluoride Concentrations In Drinking Water Is Associated With Decreased Birth Rates, J Toxicology & Environmental Health, 1994, 42, 109-12
- Hoffman DJ, Pattee OH, Wiemeyer SN, Effects of fluoride on screech owl reproduction: teratological evaluation, growth, and blood chemistry in hatchlings. Toxicol Lett 1985 Jul;26(1):19-24
- Kumar A, Susheela AK, Effects of Chronic Fluoride Toxicity on the Morphology of Ductus Epididymis and the Maturation of Spermatozoa of Rabbit, Fluoride,1995, 28:3
- Kumar A, Susheela AK, Ultrastructural Studies of Spermiogenesis in Rabbit Exposed to Chronic Fluoride Toxicity, Fluoride, 1995, 28:1
- Narayana MV, Chinoy NJ, Effect of Fluoride on Rat Testicular Steroidogenesis, Fluoride, 1994, 27:l
- Narayana MV, Chinoy NJ, Reversible Effects of Sodium Fluoride Ingestion on Spermatozoa of the Rat, Fluoride, 1995, 28:3
- Shashi A, Preliminary Observations on Alterations in Rabbit Ovary DNA and RNA Content in Experimental Fluorosis, Fluoride, 1994, 27:2
- Shashi A, Biochemical Effects of Fluoride on Lipid Metabolism of the Reproductive Organs of Male Rabbits, Fluoride, 1992, 25:3
- Susheela, Kumar A, A Study of the Effect of High Concentrations of Fluoride on the Reproductive Organs of Male Rabbits, Using Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fluoride, 1993, 26:2
- Susheela AK; Jethanandani P, Circulating testosterone levels in skeletal fluorosis patients, J Toxicol Clin Toxicol, 34:2, 1996
- Zhang ZY, Zhang GZ, Liu XJ, Effects of Organic Fluorine Exposure on the Reproductive Function of Female Workers and the Development of their Offspring, Fluoride, 1993, 26:3
- Zhao ZL, Wu NP, Influence of Fluoride on Contents of Testosterone and Cholesterol in Rat, Fluoride, 1995, 28:3
Chinoy NJ, Narayana MV, In Vitro Fluoride Toxicity In Human Spermatozoa, Fluoride, 1994 October, 27:4, 231-232, from Reproductive Toxicology, 1994, 8(2), 155-159.
Effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on washed. ejaculated human spermatozoa at doses of 25, 50, and 250 mM were investigated in vitro at intervals of 5, 10, and 20 min. Sodium fluoride (NaF) did not affect the extracellular pH of sperm, except that a slight acidification was caused by the 250 mM dose only. The treatment caused a significant enhancement in acid phosphatase (ACPase) and hyaluronidase activities after 5 and 10 min. However, the decrease in the lysosomal enzyme activity after 20 min treatment could have been due to the gradual increase in fluoride accumulation by spermatozoa leading to membrane damage. Silver nitrate staining of sperm revealed elongated heads, deflagellation. and loss of the acrosome together with coiling of the tail. Sperm glutathione levels also showed a time-dependent decrease with complete depletion after 20 min, indicating rapid glutathione oxidation in detoxification of the NaF. The altered lysosomal enzyme activity and glutathione levels together with morphologic anomalies resulted in a significant decline in sperm motility with an effective dose of 250 mM.
Eckerlin RH, Maylin GA, Krook L, Carmichael DT, Ameliorative effects of reduced food-borne fluoride on reproduction in silver foxes. Cornell Vet 1988 Oct;78(4):385-91
Reduction of ingested fluoride in a skulk of silver foxes resulted in the reduction of fluoride burden, decreased neonatal mortality and increased kit production during a two breeding and whelping season period.
Toxicology Laboratory, New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca 14853.
Freni SC, Exposure To High Fluoride Concentrations In Drinking Water Is Associated With Decreased Birth Rates, Fluoride, 1994 Oct, 27:4, 231, from Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1994, 42. 109-12.
A review of fluoride toxicity showed decreased fertility in most animal species studied. The current study was to see whether fluoride could also affect human birth rates. A U.S. database of drinking water systems was used to identify index counties with water systems reporting fluoride levels of at least 3 ppm. These and adjacent counties were grouped in 30 regions spread over 9 states. For each county, two conceptionally different exposure measures were defined, and the annual total fertility rate (TFR) for women in the age range 10-49 yr was calculated for the period 1970-1988. For each region separately, the annual TFR was regressed on the fluoride measure and sociodemographic covariablcs. Most regions showed an association of decreasing TFR with increasing fluoride levels. Meta-analysis of the region-specific results confirmed that the combined result was a negative TFR/fluoride association with a consensus combined p value of .0002-.0004, depending an the analytical scenario. There is no evidence that this outcome resulted from selection bias, inaccurate data, or improper analytical methods. However, the study is one that used population means rather than data on individual women. Whether or not the fluoride effect on the fertility rate found at the county level also applies to individual women remains to be investigated.
Hoffman DJ, Pattee OH, Wiemeyer SN, Effects of fluoride on screech owl reproduction: teratological evaluation, growth, and blood chemistry in hatchlings. Toxicol Lett 1985 Jul;26(1):19-24
The effects on reproduction in screech owls (Otus asio) of chronic dietary sodium fluoride administration at 0, 40, and 200 ppm were examined. Fluoride at 40 ppm resulted in a significantly smaller egg volume, while 200 ppm also resulted in lower egg weights and lengths. Day-one hatchlings in the 200 ppm group weighed almost 10% less than controls and had shorter crown-rump lengths. No gross abnormalities were apparent. Skeletal clearing and staining revealed significantly shorter tibiotarsus lengths in the 40 ppm and 200 ppm groups and a shorter radius-ulna length in the 200 ppm group. By 7 days of age, body weights and lengths did not differ from controls, but the tibiotarsus in the 200 ppm group remained shorter. No significant differences were detected in hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma calcium or alkaline phosphatase. Plasma phosphorus levels were higher in the 40 ppm group than in controls. These results, in combination with the findings of Pattee et al. , revealed significant impairment of overall reproduction, suggesting that sodium fluoride could cause slight to moderate reproduction disorders in owls in fluoride-polluted areas.
Narayana MV, Chinoy NJ, Effect of Fluoride on Rat Testicular Steroidogenesis, Fluoride, 1994, 27:l (Research Report 7), 17-12.
In view of reports of infertility among human populations in fluorosis prevailing regions, we investigated the effect of fluoride ingestion on testicular steroidogenesis in rats. Sodium fluoride (NaF) was administered to the rats orally at a daily dose of 10mg/kg bodyweight for 50 days. The treatment did not cause significant change in testicular cholesterol levels, indicating that metabolism was not altered and that there was no hypo/hypercholesterolemic effect. In addition, activities of the intermediary enzymes in androgenesis, viz., 3ß- and 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were only modestly decreased by NaF ingestion. Subsequently, the determination of circulating androgen levels was similar in NaF-treated rats showed a downward trend compared to those ofthe control group, suggesting alteration in testosterone concentration. The histomorphometric studies revealed significant change in the Leydig cell diameter m correlation with the androgen levels. These results indicate that fluoride does interfere with steroidogenesis in short-term lowdose exposures in rats.
Susheela AK, Jethanandani P, Circulating testosterone levels in skeletal fluorosis patients, J Toxicol Clin Toxicol, 34: 2, 1996, 183-9
OBJECTIVE: The present study focuses on serum testosterone concentrations in patients with skeletal fluorosis, in order to assess the hormonal status in fluoride toxicity.
METHODS: Serum testosterones were compared for patients afflicted with skeletal fluorosis (n = 30) and healthy males consuming water containing less than 1 ppm fluoride (Control 1, n = 26) and a second category of controls (Control 2, n = 16): individuals living in the same house as the patients and consuming same water as patients but not exhibiting clinical manifestations of skeletal fluorosis.
RESULTS: Circulating serum testosterones in skeletal fluorosis patients were significantly lower than those of Control 1 at p <0.01. Testosterone concentrations of Control 2 were also lower than those of Control 1 at p <0.05 but were higher than those of the patient group.
CONCLUSIONS: Decreased testosterone concentrations in skeletal fluorosis patients and in males drinking the same water as the patients but with no clinical manifestations of the disease compared with those of normal, healthy males living in areas nonendemic for fluorosis suggest that fluoride toxicity may cause adverse effects in the reproductive system of males living in fluorosis endemic areas.
Susheela AK, Kumar A, A Study of the Effect of High Concentrations of Fluoride on the Reproductive Organs of Male Rabbits, Using Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fluoride, 1993 April, 26:2, 148 (from J. of Reproduction and Fertility, 1991, 92, 353-360).
Fluoride was orally administered to rabbits at 10 mg NaF/kg body weight for 18 or 29 months. The animals were then killed and and the structure of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens studied under light and scanning electron microscopes. In animals treated for 29 months, the spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules were disrupted, degenerated and devoid of sperrnatozoa. In animals treated for 18 or 29 months, loss of cilia on the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the ductus efferentes of the caput epididymidis and of stereocilia on the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the vas deferens was observed. In some regions of the epithelial lining of the lumen of the ductuli efferentes and vas deferens, the boundaries of the cells were not clear and appeared to be peeled off. Mucus droplets were abundant in the vas deferens of control animals, but absent in both the treated groups. Spermatogenesis ceased only in the animals treated for 29 months. The difference in the structural changes observed in the testes of the two treated groups may have been due to the blood-testis barrier. It is concluded that ingestion of high concentrations of fluoride has harmful effects on the male reproductive system.